The Spanish Civil War in Poster

The war of words in the Spanish Civil War

In July 1936 a group of Generals within the Spanish army staged a coup against the democratically-elected left-wing Republican government. Many monarchists, conservatives and falangists (or Fascists) supported the rebels and formed a Nationalist movement. Socialists, communists, anarchists and also liberal democrats and others from the political centre who supported democracy formed a loose coalition of Republicans to oppose the rebellion. A full-scale civil war had now broken out with each side receiving international support. With the civil war, a propaganda war broke out. Posters were seen as valuable weapons, almost as important as guns and artillery shells, and new design techniques were developed to maximise their impact. However, the posters that were created and published during the Spanish Civil War were, in many ways, unlike anything seen before. This was partly because of the diversity of political positions which they represented but mainly it was because of the scale of their use, the vivid colours, the symbols and imagery that were used and the variety of artistic styles. To understand their significance in a civil war it is necessary to know that literacy levels in Spain in the 1930s were much lower than in northern and north-western Europe and in central Europe. This explains the vivid colours and, except perhaps newspaper articles, the lack of large amounts of text on the posters. The source collection is organised in a chronological way in order to link the posters to the events and thus create an overview of the Spanish Civil War in posters.

Acknowledgements: This source collection has been developed by Bjorn Pels with the support of Laura Steenbrink. The source is provided by Europeana 1914-1918.

Bardasano: 18 July 1936

This is a poster that illustrates the coup in 1936. The start time of the uprising was set at 17:01, 17 July 1936, decided upon by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde. However, the plan was changed: the men in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco started the uprising at 05:00 on 18 July and those in Spain only one day later. This was done to take control of Spanish Morocco could be achieved and to sent back to the Iberian Peninsula to handle the situation there. The uprising was supposed to a quick coup d'état, but the government regained control to the largest part of the country. Bardasano created this poster in 1937. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Bardasano: 18 July 1936

This is a poster that illustrates the coup in 1936. The start time of the uprising was set at 17:01, 17 July 1936, decided upon by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde. However, the plan was changed: the men in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco started the uprising at 05:00 on 18 July and those in Spain only one day later. This was done to take control of Spanish Morocco could be achieved and to sent back to the Iberian Peninsula to handle the situation there. The uprising was supposed to a quick coup d'état, but the government regained control to the largest part of the country. Bardasano created this poster in 1937. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

They shall not pass! We will pass!

In July 1936 a group of generals (among them Francisco Franco) led by the generals Jose Sanjurjo and Emilio Mola, begin an uprising against the Popular Front government. He was a nationalist, but no republican. While Hitler and Mussolini were supporting the nationalists, Stalin supported the republicans. The superpowers founded a non-intervention committee together. However, the only countries that respected the agreements were Britain, France and the United States. The style and image of this poster represent the attitude of the nationalists, because it underwrites the statement of rebellion and aggression. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

They shall not pass! We will pass!

In July 1936 a group of generals (among them Francisco Franco) led by the generals Jose Sanjurjo and Emilio Mola, begin an uprising against the Popular Front government. He was a nationalist, but no republican. While Hitler and Mussolini were supporting the nationalists, Stalin supported the republicans. The superpowers founded a non-intervention committee together. However, the only countries that respected the agreements were Britain, France and the United States. The style and image of this poster represent the attitude of the nationalists, because it underwrites the statement of rebellion and aggression. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The New Anti-Fascist Spain

This is an image of the republican flag in between the flags of Catalonia and Basque Country. The republicans varied from centrists who supported a moderate, capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists who opposed the Republic but sided with it against the forces of the coup. Their base was primarily secular and urban but also included peasants. The movement was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias, the Basque country, and Catalonia. In the front two flags are depicted of the Popular Front (CNT and UGT), an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The New Anti-Fascist Spain

This is an image of the republican flag in between the flags of Catalonia and Basque Country. The republicans varied from centrists who supported a moderate, capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists who opposed the Republic but sided with it against the forces of the coup. Their base was primarily secular and urban but also included peasants. The movement was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias, the Basque country, and Catalonia. In the front two flags are depicted of the Popular Front (CNT and UGT), an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Help the heroes from the Basque Country

After a week after the start of the civil war the nationalists controlled the entire Northern half of Spain, except the Basque Country and the coast, where heavy fighting continued. In the Northern half of the Spanish countryside with cities such as Avila, Soria, Segovia, Salamanca and Palencia, the inhabitants were traditionally devout Catholic and the majority of the population favoured the nationalists. On this image, man and a woman are holding a small child. According to their facial expressions and the men with garden tools on the background it is possible that they are fleeing, while desperately trying to protect their baby. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Help the heroes from the Basque Country

After a week after the start of the civil war the nationalists controlled the entire Northern half of Spain, except the Basque Country and the coast, where heavy fighting continued. In the Northern half of the Spanish countryside with cities such as Avila, Soria, Segovia, Salamanca and Palencia, the inhabitants were traditionally devout Catholic and the majority of the population favoured the nationalists. On this image, man and a woman are holding a small child. According to their facial expressions and the men with garden tools on the background it is possible that they are fleeing, while desperately trying to protect their baby. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Youngsters! The People’s Army is Waiting

On October 9 1936, the Republic of the People's Army was established in which gradually all workers, trade union, party militias and the International Brigades were united. This poster shows a large army which, by their numbers of soldiers and arms, seems disciplined. They appear to be fighting a large pig. The poster is accompanied by the text “Youngsters! The People’s Army is waiting”, and “Get military training”. These factors combined probably makes it a propaganda poster for the army. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Youngsters! The People’s Army is Waiting

On October 9 1936, the Republic of the People's Army was established in which gradually all workers, trade union, party militias and the International Brigades were united. This poster shows a large army which, by their numbers of soldiers and arms, seems disciplined. They appear to be fighting a large pig. The poster is accompanied by the text “Youngsters! The People’s Army is waiting”, and “Get military training”. These factors combined probably makes it a propaganda poster for the army. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Protecting the hoard

A beast seems to be protecting an item that is difficult to define. It is clear, however, that the beast is trying to protect that what he has conquered: he protecting his hoard. One of the lines state to “treat them as they deserve”. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Protecting the hoard

A beast seems to be protecting an item that is difficult to define. It is clear, however, that the beast is trying to protect that what he has conquered: he protecting his hoard. One of the lines state to “treat them as they deserve”. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

National Confederation of Labour, 19 July 1936

The Catalan anarcho-syndicalists of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) and their brother organization Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI) –one and a half million members combined- could operate in a free and equal manner for a few years after 19 July 1936, until they were severely hit by food shortages, internal chaos and repression. However, they also paved the way for the Spanish nationalists under the leadership of Franco. On this image a young man is holding a rifle in the air as a sign of rebellion and proudness. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

National Confederation of Labour, 19 July 1936

The Catalan anarcho-syndicalists of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) and their brother organization Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI) –one and a half million members combined- could operate in a free and equal manner for a few years after 19 July 1936, until they were severely hit by food shortages, internal chaos and repression. However, they also paved the way for the Spanish nationalists under the leadership of Franco. On this image a young man is holding a rifle in the air as a sign of rebellion and proudness. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Esperanto against Fascism

After the generals Jose Sanjurjo and Emilio Mola died in a plane accident, Franco was offered the leadership of the country in September 1936. The fact that only Franco's forces were supported by Hitler and Mussolini, played a part in this. On this poster, two first, coming from Italy and Germany, are at the point of stabbing bloody daggers into Spain. They wear the symbols of the Fascist movements on the arm. It shows the support of Hitler and Mussolini for Franco and their role in the Spanish Civil War. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Esperanto against Fascism

After the generals Jose Sanjurjo and Emilio Mola died in a plane accident, Franco was offered the leadership of the country in September 1936. The fact that only Franco's forces were supported by Hitler and Mussolini, played a part in this. On this poster, two first, coming from Italy and Germany, are at the point of stabbing bloody daggers into Spain. They wear the symbols of the Fascist movements on the arm. It shows the support of Hitler and Mussolini for Franco and their role in the Spanish Civil War. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Homage to Madrid

This poster shows a woman, trying to protect her infant. The context, however, tells us that they probably did not survive. The Paracuellos massacres were a series of mass killings of civilians and soldiers by the republicans. It took place before and during the battle of Madrid, during the early stages of the Civil War. The death toll remains the subject of discussion and controversy (7 November 1936). (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Homage to Madrid

This poster shows a woman, trying to protect her infant. The context, however, tells us that they probably did not survive. The Paracuellos massacres were a series of mass killings of civilians and soldiers by the republicans. It took place before and during the battle of Madrid, during the early stages of the Civil War. The death toll remains the subject of discussion and controversy (7 November 1936). (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Help Madrid

This poster states: “The fascist air forces fly over the capital of the Republic. Do you do something to prevent this?” On the photograph, two children are hiding underneath a stone wall, possibly a bridge. They look at the sky, as if fascist airplanes are passing by. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Help Madrid

This poster states: “The fascist air forces fly over the capital of the Republic. Do you do something to prevent this?” On the photograph, two children are hiding underneath a stone wall, possibly a bridge. They look at the sky, as if fascist airplanes are passing by. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Madrid: Tolerate this, and your children will be next

This is a republican propaganda poster against the military practice of the rebels. A small infant is looking up with a startled look on her face. A large amount if airplanes is passing by over her head. It is the moment that the International Brigades enter the battlefield, during the battles of Madrid. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Madrid: Tolerate this, and your children will be next

This is a republican propaganda poster against the military practice of the rebels. A small infant is looking up with a startled look on her face. A large amount if airplanes is passing by over her head. It is the moment that the International Brigades enter the battlefield, during the battles of Madrid. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Combatting illiteracy

“The culture of the militia has taught 13,142 illiterate soldiers to read and write.” This is a poster of the Ministry of Education, showing off on what they have accomplished. The nationalist faction consisted of monarchists, the Carlists, the fascist-oriented Falange and other right-wing groups in environments like the middle class and industrialists. The workers formed militias together with liberals, socialists, communists, anarchists and Basque and Catalan separatists. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Combatting illiteracy

“The culture of the militia has taught 13,142 illiterate soldiers to read and write.” This is a poster of the Ministry of Education, showing off on what they have accomplished. The nationalist faction consisted of monarchists, the Carlists, the fascist-oriented Falange and other right-wing groups in environments like the middle class and industrialists. The workers formed militias together with liberals, socialists, communists, anarchists and Basque and Catalan separatists. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Workers Produce More

On 1 February 1937, Juan Negrín helds a speech in the parliament. He states that victory on the frontlines can not be seen separate from production. The man on the poster is lifting a machine that is half car, half tank, and underwrites this statement of Negrín. Afterwards, in May 1937, at the initiative of the communists, revolutionary socialists and anarchists are put aside in Barcelona. Prime Minister Largo Caballero is replaced with Juan Negrín. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Workers Produce More

On 1 February 1937, Juan Negrín helds a speech in the parliament. He states that victory on the frontlines can not be seen separate from production. The man on the poster is lifting a machine that is half car, half tank, and underwrites this statement of Negrín. Afterwards, in May 1937, at the initiative of the communists, revolutionary socialists and anarchists are put aside in Barcelona. Prime Minister Largo Caballero is replaced with Juan Negrín. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Schools created by the Monarchy and the Republic.

“Winning the war means ensuring culture and education for the people”, is the message of this propaganda poster. In February 1937 the nationalists from the North and from the West marched to Málaga. They received back-up from Italian volunteer troops. The severely damaged Republican army fled along the only remaining escape route, the coastal road East towards Almería through Motril, but fiercely bombarded by nationalist ships when they reached the sea side. Later in the year Republicans tried to reclaim territories, but usually stayed at a few tens of square kilometers away. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Schools created by the Monarchy and the Republic.

“Winning the war means ensuring culture and education for the people”, is the message of this propaganda poster. In February 1937 the nationalists from the North and from the West marched to Málaga. They received back-up from Italian volunteer troops. The severely damaged Republican army fled along the only remaining escape route, the coastal road East towards Almería through Motril, but fiercely bombarded by nationalist ships when they reached the sea side. Later in the year Republicans tried to reclaim territories, but usually stayed at a few tens of square kilometers away. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

National Youth Exhibition in Valencia

In August 1937, the National Youth Exhibition took place in Valencia. This is announced by this poster, with a young man holding a red flag with stars in the air. The image on this poster is typical for the posters produced during the Spanish Civil War, because it promotes the strength and the importance of the use. In November 1936 the anarcho-syndicalist party of the CNT-FAI (trade union confederations), a considerable force in the fight against the Nationalists, was persuaded to join the government as well. Francisco Largo Caballero, leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) and the Workers' General Union (UGT), became prime minister in September 1936. He was succeeded in May 1937 by the socialist Juan Negrín. At the beginning of November 1936 the Republican government was situated in Valencia, while the siege of Madrid continued. That was probably why the Youth Exhibition was organized in Valencia. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

National Youth Exhibition in Valencia

In August 1937, the National Youth Exhibition took place in Valencia. This is announced by this poster, with a young man holding a red flag with stars in the air. The image on this poster is typical for the posters produced during the Spanish Civil War, because it promotes the strength and the importance of the use. In November 1936 the anarcho-syndicalist party of the CNT-FAI (trade union confederations), a considerable force in the fight against the Nationalists, was persuaded to join the government as well. Francisco Largo Caballero, leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) and the Workers' General Union (UGT), became prime minister in September 1936. He was succeeded in May 1937 by the socialist Juan Negrín. At the beginning of November 1936 the Republican government was situated in Valencia, while the siege of Madrid continued. That was probably why the Youth Exhibition was organized in Valencia. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Socialist Solidarity Card from France to Spain

The political left in France wanted to aid the Spanish republicans directly. This card promoted the set-up of sending help (in the form of supplies and food aid) to Spain, in order to save their fellow socialists. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Socialist Solidarity Card from France to Spain

The political left in France wanted to aid the Spanish republicans directly. This card promoted the set-up of sending help (in the form of supplies and food aid) to Spain, in order to save their fellow socialists. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Until the end!

The text of the poster states “until the end” but on 'socialist' conditions. The P.O.U.M., the Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification, was the Spanish communist political party. On this poster a red hand is holding a red flag with the name of the party on it, the sign of the communists. The flag is planted on a swastika, probably as a sign of attack to the Nazi regime. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Until the end!

The text of the poster states “until the end” but on 'socialist' conditions. The P.O.U.M., the Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification, was the Spanish communist political party. On this poster a red hand is holding a red flag with the name of the party on it, the sign of the communists. The flag is planted on a swastika, probably as a sign of attack to the Nazi regime. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Towards a National Transport Federation

This poster represent the idea of the to centralise all transport into one organisation. It is a propaganda poster of the Comite Nacional, the side of the nationalists. Images of all means of transport known to the people are depicted as if they go very fast, to support the idea that a common organisation would benefit all means of transport and thus the people as well. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Towards a National Transport Federation

This poster represent the idea of the to centralise all transport into one organisation. It is a propaganda poster of the Comite Nacional, the side of the nationalists. Images of all means of transport known to the people are depicted as if they go very fast, to support the idea that a common organisation would benefit all means of transport and thus the people as well. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Cinema Poster to Honour the International Brigades

The International Red Aid (SRI) took the side of the republicans. This is an anouncement to a cinema evening, to honour the Brigadas Internacionales: the large number of volunteers that came to Spain to fight in the Civil War. But Stalin would retreat his brigades in 1938 when he saw that the war was lost. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Cinema Poster to Honour the International Brigades

The International Red Aid (SRI) took the side of the republicans. This is an anouncement to a cinema evening, to honour the Brigadas Internacionales: the large number of volunteers that came to Spain to fight in the Civil War. But Stalin would retreat his brigades in 1938 when he saw that the war was lost. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

19 July 1938: the Announcement of Independence and Freedom by the Nationalists

This is a newspaper anouncement of the nationalists, anouncing that they are winning the war. They capture large parts of Catalonia, Franco recovers Teruel and in March the nationalists launch the Aragon Offensive. Two months later, the republicans advocate peace, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender. In december, Franco invaded Catalonia with great force. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0)

19 July 1938: the Announcement of Independence and Freedom by the Nationalists

This is a newspaper anouncement of the nationalists, anouncing that they are winning the war. They capture large parts of Catalonia, Franco recovers Teruel and in March the nationalists launch the Aragon Offensive. Two months later, the republicans advocate peace, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender. In december, Franco invaded Catalonia with great force. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0)

The Leftist: the marksman covers all garments to better kill in the shade. Let’s exterminate him!

This is a typical example of nationalist propaganda. The Republic paid for Soviet arms with official gold reserves of the Bank of Spain. This would frequently later be used as subject of Franquist propaganda, under the term "Moscow Gold". The cost of the Soviet Union arms was more than the value of Spain's gold reserves, the fourth-largest in the world, estimated at US $500 million (1936 prices), 176 tonnes of which was transferred through France. This explains the fat man, possibly a banker, in the belly of the monster. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Leftist: the marksman covers all garments to better kill in the shade. Let’s exterminate him!

This is a typical example of nationalist propaganda. The Republic paid for Soviet arms with official gold reserves of the Bank of Spain. This would frequently later be used as subject of Franquist propaganda, under the term "Moscow Gold". The cost of the Soviet Union arms was more than the value of Spain's gold reserves, the fourth-largest in the world, estimated at US $500 million (1936 prices), 176 tonnes of which was transferred through France. This explains the fat man, possibly a banker, in the belly of the monster. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The best hotels are residence to refugee children.

This poster states that refugees from the war were treated like they were in a hotel. However, hundreds of thousands of republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France. The refugees were held in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. In his position as consul in Paris, the Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda organized the immigration of 2,200 Republican exiles to Chile from France using the ship SS Winnipeg. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The best hotels are residence to refugee children.

This poster states that refugees from the war were treated like they were in a hotel. However, hundreds of thousands of republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France. The refugees were held in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. In his position as consul in Paris, the Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda organized the immigration of 2,200 Republican exiles to Chile from France using the ship SS Winnipeg. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The promotion of Reading

Catalonia was of vital importance for the course of the Spanish Civil War. The loss of the region was an important reason why the republicans lost the war. Catalonia language. It was thus important for the region, to keep promoting their Catalan language by not lose the ability to read. Already very few people could read in the country at the moment, so it was important for the Catalonians to try and combat this. 1939 Franco tried to vanish the Catalonian language. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The promotion of Reading

Catalonia was of vital importance for the course of the Spanish Civil War. The loss of the region was an important reason why the republicans lost the war. Catalonia language. It was thus important for the region, to keep promoting their Catalan language by not lose the ability to read. Already very few people could read in the country at the moment, so it was important for the Catalonians to try and combat this. 1939 Franco tried to vanish the Catalonian language. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Massacre of Barcelona

In January 1939, Barcelona fell and the republican resistance was broken. Tens of thousands of people fled to the Pyrenees. Within the first five days after the fall of Barcelona around10,000 people were executed by the nationalists without trial. The German Air Force fired on the people that tried to escape to the French border. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Massacre of Barcelona

In January 1939, Barcelona fell and the republican resistance was broken. Tens of thousands of people fled to the Pyrenees. Within the first five days after the fall of Barcelona around10,000 people were executed by the nationalists without trial. The German Air Force fired on the people that tried to escape to the French border. (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Pact of Forgetting

The Pact of Forgetting (el Pacto del Olvido) is the Spanish political decision to avoid dealing with the legacy of Francoism after the death of General Francisco Franco in 1975, who had remained in power since the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1939. The Pact of Forgetting was an attempt to put the past behind them and concentrate on the future of Spain. The pact was given a legal basis in the Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law. This is a pamphlet published by an association for ex-prisoners of political repressailles, asking for amnesty (1976). (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Pact of Forgetting

The Pact of Forgetting (el Pacto del Olvido) is the Spanish political decision to avoid dealing with the legacy of Francoism after the death of General Francisco Franco in 1975, who had remained in power since the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1939. The Pact of Forgetting was an attempt to put the past behind them and concentrate on the future of Spain. The pact was given a legal basis in the Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law. This is a pamphlet published by an association for ex-prisoners of political repressailles, asking for amnesty (1976). (Goldfarb Library, Brandeis University, CC BY-NC-SA - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)