Joseph Stalin

From the prosperous leader to the ruthless dictator

Stalin was a revolutionary figure who played a prominent role in the Bolshevik Revolution between 1917 and 1921. From 1922 he was General Secretary of the Bolshevik Party, a power base that Stalin exploited to by-pass more prominent party leaders, such as Trotsky, and to achieve bureaucratic and political dominance for himself. By 1929, Stalin was the unchallenged leader of the USSR as successor to Lenin. Throughout the 1930s Stalin strengthened his grip on power through ruthless purges of potential opponents. As well as the Terror, he launched the ‘Stalin Revolution’, transforming the Soviet Union, at great human cost, by the collectivisation of agriculture and rapid industrialisation. Stalin hoped to keep the USSR out of foreign entanglements until the ‘Stalin Revolution’ was complete. In 1939 he made a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany. In June 1941, however, Hitler launched a sudden invasion of the USSR. Stalin was plunged into a war of survival , the Great Fatherland War.. After a shaky start as war leader, Stalin came to be seen Generalissimo and Hero of the Nation. The war made the USSR a military and industrial superpower;. Victory also strengthened Stalln’s cult of personality. In 1953 Stalin died after a stroke. Nikita Khrushchev emerged as leader. In 1956, Khrushchev’s ’secret speech’ to the party congress launched ‘de-Stalinisation’ an attempt to deal with the difficult legacy of Stalin and Stalinism. This process is still not yet complete. Until today his role in many places carrying the Soviet legacy remains debatable. This source collection could serve as a complimentary material to teachers who look into the role of Stalin in Bolshevik Russia, October Revolution, years following the creation of Soviet Union, his role in WW II and legacy following his death. This collection aims to provide teachers and students with more insight on controversial role of Stalin before, during and after WWII and his legacy which remains to be contested up to present day. As sources in this collection suggests, the image of Stalin has never stopped been controversial. Stalin left a difficult legacy. His acts and decisions lead him being perceived as a ruthless tyrant causing death and torture of millions of people. By 1953 he had dominated the lives of Soviet citizens for thirty years. Yet, many regarded him as the Great Leader who had transformed the country, defeated Fascism and made the USSR into a world power. Opposite to this, many others remembered the Terror and still feared to challenge Stalin even after he was dead. Within this context, teachers and students can critically analyse different images of Stalin in a multi-perspective way and link it to the bigger picture and debate Stalin’s legacy in post-soviet era.

Acknowledgements: This source collection has been developed by Aysel Gojayeva with the support of Laura Steenbrink. The source collection makes use of sources provided by the Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Athena Plus, Museon, Public Library Varna, Kulturarvsstyrelsen, National Library of Denmark, Istituto Conestabile Piastrelli, Stiftelsen Nordiska Museet, Kadriorg Art Museum, The European Library, Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz and the Lithuanian Art Museum.

Stalin as a Young and Ordinary Bolshevik

Portrait of Stalin in his youth painted in 1952. Though debated by some other sources, according to official accounts, Stalin was born on December 18, 1878 as a son of a cobbler. His name of birth was actually Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili. He chose to use the name of ‘Stalin’ which means ‘man of steel’ in 1910. According to some commentators, the reason for this was to distance himself from his Georgian roots. Stalin became a revolutionary after reading Social Democrat pamphlets, especially those by V.I. Lenin. In 1903 he joined Lenin’s Bolshevik faction. Stalin became well known to the Tsarist secret police, was arrested many times and sent to Siberia. Stalin specialised in direct action, including armed robberies to boost party funds. Many colleagues despised him as being ‘uncouth’ but Lenin developed a high regard for his loyalty and his ability to get things done. In 1914, Stalin volunteered for military service but was rejected because of his physical disabilities. He continued to work in the revolutionary underground and was one of those Bolsheviks who came to join Lenin when Lenin returned to Russia from exile in April 1917 (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, K/65/9 GOS-Nr. gm002001 [Metadata] CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Stalin as a Young and Ordinary Bolshevik

Portrait of Stalin in his youth painted in 1952. Though debated by some other sources, according to official accounts, Stalin was born on December 18, 1878 as a son of a cobbler. His name of birth was actually Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili. He chose to use the name of ‘Stalin’ which means ‘man of steel’ in 1910. According to some commentators, the reason for this was to distance himself from his Georgian roots. Stalin became a revolutionary after reading Social Democrat pamphlets, especially those by V.I. Lenin. In 1903 he joined Lenin’s Bolshevik faction. Stalin became well known to the Tsarist secret police, was arrested many times and sent to Siberia. Stalin specialised in direct action, including armed robberies to boost party funds. Many colleagues despised him as being ‘uncouth’ but Lenin developed a high regard for his loyalty and his ability to get things done. In 1914, Stalin volunteered for military service but was rejected because of his physical disabilities. He continued to work in the revolutionary underground and was one of those Bolsheviks who came to join Lenin when Lenin returned to Russia from exile in April 1917 (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, K/65/9 GOS-Nr. gm002001 [Metadata] CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Stalin as a Rising Power

Stalin was one the Bolsheviks' main figures in the Caucasus. He was in very close contact with Lenin, who appreciated him as a capable and loyal comrade. Stalin played a significant role in the invasion of Georgia by the Red Army in 1921. Stalin was highly ambitious but other senior Bolsheviks underrated him. From 1922, he built a formidable power base, using two main methods: first taking the post of General Secretary of the Party, which gave him great central authority over the party bureaucracy; second by controlling access to Lenin after he was made inactive by a stroke. Stalin virtually ‘owned’ the cult of Leninism and used it against rivals for the party leadership, both on the Right and the Left, such as Trotsky and Bukharin. Stalin made skilful use of the slogan ‘Socialism in a Single Country’. By 1929 Trotsky had gone into exile and Stalin ‘s political dominance was unchallenged. This image shows Lenin, addressing a crowd, and Stalin is the person standing right behind him. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, K64/16 GOS-Nr. z0006713 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Stalin as a Rising Power

Stalin was one the Bolsheviks' main figures in the Caucasus. He was in very close contact with Lenin, who appreciated him as a capable and loyal comrade. Stalin played a significant role in the invasion of Georgia by the Red Army in 1921. Stalin was highly ambitious but other senior Bolsheviks underrated him. From 1922, he built a formidable power base, using two main methods: first taking the post of General Secretary of the Party, which gave him great central authority over the party bureaucracy; second by controlling access to Lenin after he was made inactive by a stroke. Stalin virtually ‘owned’ the cult of Leninism and used it against rivals for the party leadership, both on the Right and the Left, such as Trotsky and Bukharin. Stalin made skilful use of the slogan ‘Socialism in a Single Country’. By 1929 Trotsky had gone into exile and Stalin ‘s political dominance was unchallenged. This image shows Lenin, addressing a crowd, and Stalin is the person standing right behind him. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, K64/16 GOS-Nr. z0006713 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Stalin as a Heroic War Figure

Stalin was taken by surprise when the USSR was invaded in June 1941. The Red Army was unprepared for the conflict and had been weakened by the purges of 1937-39. At first, Stalin made many military errors that led to costly defeats before the USSR was saved by its size, its winter and the patriotic determination of its people. The war made the Soviet Union into a great modern war machine; and it made Stalin into a great war leader, the Hero of the Nation and the focal point of Soviet resistance against the Nazi enemy. This was symbolised by the climactic battle at Stalingrad, in 1942-43. By the end of the war, Stalin was a world leader working together with his American and British allies to shape the post-war world. (Eesti Kunstimuuseum, EKM j 5042 VM 593 99581, Public Domain, AthenaPlus, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Stalin as a Heroic War Figure

Stalin was taken by surprise when the USSR was invaded in June 1941. The Red Army was unprepared for the conflict and had been weakened by the purges of 1937-39. At first, Stalin made many military errors that led to costly defeats before the USSR was saved by its size, its winter and the patriotic determination of its people. The war made the Soviet Union into a great modern war machine; and it made Stalin into a great war leader, the Hero of the Nation and the focal point of Soviet resistance against the Nazi enemy. This was symbolised by the climactic battle at Stalingrad, in 1942-43. By the end of the war, Stalin was a world leader working together with his American and British allies to shape the post-war world. (Eesti Kunstimuuseum, EKM j 5042 VM 593 99581, Public Domain, AthenaPlus, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

A Great Soviet leader with Important World Figures making Important Decisions

This is an image of Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at the Conference of Tehran. The Tehran Conference convened together Stalin (the Soviet Union), Roosevelt (the United Kingdom), and Churchill (the United States) for three days in 1943. The conference took place at the embassy of the Soviet Union in Tehran, Iran. It was the first conference during the WWII in which three allied leaders came together. The main outcome of the Tehran Conference was to open a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. Moreover, Iran’s independence was recognized by big three by signing a separate protocol as a result of this conference. (Museon, 170033, CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

A Great Soviet leader with Important World Figures making Important Decisions

This is an image of Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at the Conference of Tehran. The Tehran Conference convened together Stalin (the Soviet Union), Roosevelt (the United Kingdom), and Churchill (the United States) for three days in 1943. The conference took place at the embassy of the Soviet Union in Tehran, Iran. It was the first conference during the WWII in which three allied leaders came together. The main outcome of the Tehran Conference was to open a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. Moreover, Iran’s independence was recognized by big three by signing a separate protocol as a result of this conference. (Museon, 170033, CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

Recreation as Stalin’s Remedy at Turbulent Times

This is the image of Stalin’s summer house. Facing the entrance, the central part of the courtgarden and the beach are situated. Opposite the entrance, there stands a statutute to Stalin. The photograph was taken in 1950. Stalin’s summer house was his favorite getaway. The villa was built in the hills overlooking the Black Sea, and he visited it during some of the most turbulent years of his reign. (Регионална библиотека ПЕНЧО СЛАВЕЙКОВ - Варна, Регионална библиотека ПЕНЧО СЛАВЕЙКОВ - Варна / Public Library - Varna, CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ )

Recreation as Stalin’s Remedy at Turbulent Times

This is the image of Stalin’s summer house. Facing the entrance, the central part of the courtgarden and the beach are situated. Opposite the entrance, there stands a statutute to Stalin. The photograph was taken in 1950. Stalin’s summer house was his favorite getaway. The villa was built in the hills overlooking the Black Sea, and he visited it during some of the most turbulent years of his reign. (Регионална библиотека ПЕНЧО СЛАВЕЙКОВ - Варна, Регионална библиотека ПЕНЧО СЛАВЕЙКОВ - Варна / Public Library - Varna, CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ )

Stalin as the Revolutionary Leader of the Soviet Nation

In this image Stalin is being portrayed as the great leader of the Soviet nation. The image was created in 1949. Since the victory over Germany, Stalin’s image as a heroic war leader, partly myth, partly truth, continued to exert a powerful grip on the memory of the peoples of Russia and the Soviet Union. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventarnummer PL 49/3a GOS-Nr. p0004800, CC BY - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ )

Stalin as the Revolutionary Leader of the Soviet Nation

In this image Stalin is being portrayed as the great leader of the Soviet nation. The image was created in 1949. Since the victory over Germany, Stalin’s image as a heroic war leader, partly myth, partly truth, continued to exert a powerful grip on the memory of the peoples of Russia and the Soviet Union. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventarnummer PL 49/3a GOS-Nr. p0004800, CC BY - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ )

Stalin Behind the Proud Victory over Nazi Germany

In the image, a medal is attached to a band with three black and two orange stripes. The obverse of the coin shows Joseph Stalin. There is a corresponding proof certifying the receipt of the award on April 5, 1946. The medal was awarded to the person as a token of appreciation for his efforts in the Polish and Russian army during WW2. The medal was awarded on the occasion of the victory over Nazi Germany. Despite the fact that the recipient of the medal was a Polish national who had served the country as a soldier and senior diplomat, he received several fine orders and medals for his efforts in the country. (Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 0204X0001 2819108, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Stalin Behind the Proud Victory over Nazi Germany

In the image, a medal is attached to a band with three black and two orange stripes. The obverse of the coin shows Joseph Stalin. There is a corresponding proof certifying the receipt of the award on April 5, 1946. The medal was awarded to the person as a token of appreciation for his efforts in the Polish and Russian army during WW2. The medal was awarded on the occasion of the victory over Nazi Germany. Despite the fact that the recipient of the medal was a Polish national who had served the country as a soldier and senior diplomat, he received several fine orders and medals for his efforts in the country. (Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 0204X0001 2819108, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

A Leader Carrying Names of Dozens of Streetnames and Squares

This is a photgraph of the Boulevard Knyaz Boris (named after Lenin for over 50 years) in Varna in 1927 at the early morning. During Stalin's rule (1922–1953), many streetnames, in the Soviet Union and other communist countries were named or renamed in honor of Stalin. Most of these names returned to their original names shortly after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, or after the beginning of destalinization in 1961. One of these cities was city Varna that was named after Stalin between 20 December 1949 to 20 October 1956. Varna is now the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the third largest city in Bulgaria. It is also known as the fourth largest city on the Black Sea. (Public Library – Varna, CC0 - http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

A Leader Carrying Names of Dozens of Streetnames and Squares

This is a photgraph of the Boulevard Knyaz Boris (named after Lenin for over 50 years) in Varna in 1927 at the early morning. During Stalin's rule (1922–1953), many streetnames, in the Soviet Union and other communist countries were named or renamed in honor of Stalin. Most of these names returned to their original names shortly after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, or after the beginning of destalinization in 1961. One of these cities was city Varna that was named after Stalin between 20 December 1949 to 20 October 1956. Varna is now the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the third largest city in Bulgaria. It is also known as the fourth largest city on the Black Sea. (Public Library – Varna, CC0 - http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Stalin as an Admirable Figure outside the Soviet Union

This is a Spanish magazine that dedicated a specific issue to the 70th year anniversary of Stalin. Apparently, Stalin was admired and respected not only in the countries of Soviet Union but also outside. The similar tendencies were encountred also by other world countries. Nuestra Bandera (“Our Flag”) is a monthly magazine of ideological education of the Spanish Communist Party. This issue isnumber 2, December 1949. (Biblioteca Virtual de Prensa Histórica , oai:prensahistorica.mcu.es:10003089435, PD http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Stalin as an Admirable Figure outside the Soviet Union

This is a Spanish magazine that dedicated a specific issue to the 70th year anniversary of Stalin. Apparently, Stalin was admired and respected not only in the countries of Soviet Union but also outside. The similar tendencies were encountred also by other world countries. Nuestra Bandera (“Our Flag”) is a monthly magazine of ideological education of the Spanish Communist Party. This issue isnumber 2, December 1949. (Biblioteca Virtual de Prensa Histórica , oai:prensahistorica.mcu.es:10003089435, PD http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Fame of Stalin outside the Soviet Union continues

This German poster produced in Berlin aims to glorify Stalin as the great leader of the Soviet Union between his birth and 1952. The motto of the poster is “Long live the bearer of peace, the best friend of the German people”. Because it honours Stalin as a great leader, it is most probable that this poster was produced in the DDR (German Democratic Republic). (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventarnummer PL 52/271a GOS-Nr. p0005588 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Fame of Stalin outside the Soviet Union continues

This German poster produced in Berlin aims to glorify Stalin as the great leader of the Soviet Union between his birth and 1952. The motto of the poster is “Long live the bearer of peace, the best friend of the German people”. Because it honours Stalin as a great leader, it is most probable that this poster was produced in the DDR (German Democratic Republic). (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventarnummer PL 52/271a GOS-Nr. p0005588 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Prosperous Years and Success by Stalin

This East-German poster welcomes Stalin as the “leader of life and prosperous, the uniform independent, democratic, peace-loving Germany” on the occasion of the founding of the GDR on 7 October 1949. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig Inventarnummer PL 49/16 GOS-Nr. p0004813 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ )

Prosperous Years and Success by Stalin

This East-German poster welcomes Stalin as the “leader of life and prosperous, the uniform independent, democratic, peace-loving Germany” on the occasion of the founding of the GDR on 7 October 1949. (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig Inventarnummer PL 49/16 GOS-Nr. p0004813 [Metadata], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ )

Stalin Seen Differently in the Eyes of Artists

Circus "Europe" | Haugaard, Marinus (1897-1956) cartoonist Despite glorified and admirable images of Stalin in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, he has been subject to heavy criticism in the Western media. This cartoon is one of the examples. Stalin and Hitler are described as circus performers. Stalin with the Russian bear on a leash is in conversation with the female artist. Adolf Hitler is depicted as a clown who juggles with knives. In the foreground is a ball with a swastika on one side and the text "USSR" on the other. (National Library of Denmark, http://www.kb.dk/images/billed/2010/okt/billeder/object159728/en/ CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Stalin Seen Differently in the Eyes of Artists

Circus "Europe" | Haugaard, Marinus (1897-1956) cartoonist Despite glorified and admirable images of Stalin in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, he has been subject to heavy criticism in the Western media. This cartoon is one of the examples. Stalin and Hitler are described as circus performers. Stalin with the Russian bear on a leash is in conversation with the female artist. Adolf Hitler is depicted as a clown who juggles with knives. In the foreground is a ball with a swastika on one side and the text "USSR" on the other. (National Library of Denmark, http://www.kb.dk/images/billed/2010/okt/billeder/object159728/en/ CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Stalin as the Hated Figure

This posted is inpired by anti communism motives in Italy. Stalin is portrayed as an evil figure, accompanied by the texts “Disordini”(disorder) and “Rivoluzione”(revolution). (Istituto Conestabile Piastrelli, 146, Public Domain, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Stalin as the Hated Figure

This posted is inpired by anti communism motives in Italy. Stalin is portrayed as an evil figure, accompanied by the texts “Disordini”(disorder) and “Rivoluzione”(revolution). (Istituto Conestabile Piastrelli, 146, Public Domain, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Stalin Evils as Equal to Hitler’s

This a Dutch written text by national socialists to explain who Stalin is. Printed on both sides. Hitler’s name is overwritten above the name of Stalin. The document shows meer anti Stalin motives and alleges him standing on the same level with Hitler. (Museon, 69351 (5/7), CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

Stalin Evils as Equal to Hitler’s

This a Dutch written text by national socialists to explain who Stalin is. Printed on both sides. Hitler’s name is overwritten above the name of Stalin. The document shows meer anti Stalin motives and alleges him standing on the same level with Hitler. (Museon, 69351 (5/7), CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

Stalin’s Death: Why did no one save the Great Leader?

Soviet propaganda during the Cold war pushed the cult of Stalin to new heights, especially in the celebrations of his 70th birthday in 1949. Criticism of Stalin, or of his system was impossible. During the war, there had been some relaxation of the repression but, after 1945, Stalin radicalised. The camps in Siberia filled up again with victims. The so-called Doctor’s Plot of 1952 signified that a new round of purges was coming. It was impossible to bring about change or reform because the propaganda image was that of a society already perfect. When Stalin suffered a massive stroke in 1953, it is thought that senior Communists deliberately allowed him to die – because they were so afraid of him and because he was an obstacle to change. (Stiftelsen Nordiska Museet, http://kulturarvsdata.se/nomu/photo/NMA0030013, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/)

Stalin’s Death: Why did no one save the Great Leader?

Soviet propaganda during the Cold war pushed the cult of Stalin to new heights, especially in the celebrations of his 70th birthday in 1949. Criticism of Stalin, or of his system was impossible. During the war, there had been some relaxation of the repression but, after 1945, Stalin radicalised. The camps in Siberia filled up again with victims. The so-called Doctor’s Plot of 1952 signified that a new round of purges was coming. It was impossible to bring about change or reform because the propaganda image was that of a society already perfect. When Stalin suffered a massive stroke in 1953, it is thought that senior Communists deliberately allowed him to die – because they were so afraid of him and because he was an obstacle to change. (Stiftelsen Nordiska Museet, http://kulturarvsdata.se/nomu/photo/NMA0030013, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/)

Stalin’s Evils Reflected in Art

Adamson-Eric (1902–1968) left a deep impression on Estonian art history, both with his paintings and his applied art works. Although Adamson-Eric did quite well in the first years of Soviet Estonia, after having been evacuated to the Soviet Union after World War II, even he could not escape the repression targeted at Estonian intellectuals in 1950. It was only the political thaw following Stalin’s death that allowed the reinstatement of Adamson-Eric’s right to teach young artists and to show his work. (Conservation Centre Kanut / Kadriorg Art Museum, local (default) 001 [Metadata], CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ )

Stalin’s Evils Reflected in Art

Adamson-Eric (1902–1968) left a deep impression on Estonian art history, both with his paintings and his applied art works. Although Adamson-Eric did quite well in the first years of Soviet Estonia, after having been evacuated to the Soviet Union after World War II, even he could not escape the repression targeted at Estonian intellectuals in 1950. It was only the political thaw following Stalin’s death that allowed the reinstatement of Adamson-Eric’s right to teach young artists and to show his work. (Conservation Centre Kanut / Kadriorg Art Museum, local (default) 001 [Metadata], CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ )

Stalin between a Hero and a Villain

Using a wide selection of newspapers, journals, monographs, and school textbooks from different regions of the country, this book, written by David R. Marples, examines the sensitive issue of the changing perspectives – often shifting 180 degrees – on several events discussed in the new narratives of the Stalin years published in the Ukraine since the late Gorbachev period until 2005. These events were pivotal to Ukraine. This book is an example of the expression of critical views on the Stalin’s image and his legacy. (The European Library, oai:doab-books:17085, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

Stalin between a Hero and a Villain

Using a wide selection of newspapers, journals, monographs, and school textbooks from different regions of the country, this book, written by David R. Marples, examines the sensitive issue of the changing perspectives – often shifting 180 degrees – on several events discussed in the new narratives of the Stalin years published in the Ukraine since the late Gorbachev period until 2005. These events were pivotal to Ukraine. This book is an example of the expression of critical views on the Stalin’s image and his legacy. (The European Library, oai:doab-books:17085, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

How does his Birthplace remember Stalin?

This is the photo of the Joseph Stalin Museum in Gori- in the foreground, the house where Stalin was born. The complex of the museum was opened in 1957. In the house, where Stalin was born, a memorial museum was opened in 1937, when Stalin was still alive. The museum includes the memorial house, Stalin’s carriage and the exhibition building. The exhibits are divided into six halls in roughly chronological order, and contain many items actually or allegedly owned by Stalin, including some of his office furniture, his personal items and gifts made for him over the years. There is also much illustration by documentation, photographs, paintings and newspaper articles. The existence of the museum remains controversial issue for Georgia. (Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, local 07961207 [Metadata] Maayan, Dror - 07961207/fle0000361x_p [Resource], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

How does his Birthplace remember Stalin?

This is the photo of the Joseph Stalin Museum in Gori- in the foreground, the house where Stalin was born. The complex of the museum was opened in 1957. In the house, where Stalin was born, a memorial museum was opened in 1937, when Stalin was still alive. The museum includes the memorial house, Stalin’s carriage and the exhibition building. The exhibits are divided into six halls in roughly chronological order, and contain many items actually or allegedly owned by Stalin, including some of his office furniture, his personal items and gifts made for him over the years. There is also much illustration by documentation, photographs, paintings and newspaper articles. The existence of the museum remains controversial issue for Georgia. (Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, local 07961207 [Metadata] Maayan, Dror - 07961207/fle0000361x_p [Resource], CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Miniatures of Churchill, Stalin and other Historical Figures

These minuatures are set at the staricase of the covenant villa in Östhammar. The photo is taken in 2011. Stalin has been and still remains a controversial historical figure up to today. Many see him as a leader who has contributed to peace and development, won the war and made the country a word power. Opposite this, many others remember and will remember him as rutthless dictator who lead to death and torture of millions of people. Stalin’s successors had to grapple with this legacy. Some like Leonid Brezhnev, simply tried to keep things going and only tinkered with reform. Others, like Nikita Khrushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev, attempted major reforms (‘de-Stalinisation’) but ran into strong political opposition . Between 1989 and 1991 Gorbachev’s attempt to reform the system in order to save it resulted in the collapse of the USSR and the end of Communism itself. Even since 1991, Stalin’s place in history has continued to be problematic for modern-day Russians. According to latest polls, Stalin still remains one of the most famous figures in the post-Soviet countries, both as an evil and a heroic figure. (Upplandsmuseet, http://kulturarvsdata.se/upmu/photo/DIG022100, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/)

Miniatures of Churchill, Stalin and other Historical Figures

These minuatures are set at the staricase of the covenant villa in Östhammar. The photo is taken in 2011. Stalin has been and still remains a controversial historical figure up to today. Many see him as a leader who has contributed to peace and development, won the war and made the country a word power. Opposite this, many others remember and will remember him as rutthless dictator who lead to death and torture of millions of people. Stalin’s successors had to grapple with this legacy. Some like Leonid Brezhnev, simply tried to keep things going and only tinkered with reform. Others, like Nikita Khrushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev, attempted major reforms (‘de-Stalinisation’) but ran into strong political opposition . Between 1989 and 1991 Gorbachev’s attempt to reform the system in order to save it resulted in the collapse of the USSR and the end of Communism itself. Even since 1991, Stalin’s place in history has continued to be problematic for modern-day Russians. According to latest polls, Stalin still remains one of the most famous figures in the post-Soviet countries, both as an evil and a heroic figure. (Upplandsmuseet, http://kulturarvsdata.se/upmu/photo/DIG022100, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/)