Jeanne D’Arc

The creation of a legend

Jeanne d'Arc (6 January c. 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic Saint. Jeanne d’Arc was a daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romee, a peasant family, at Domrémy in North-East France. Jeanne said she received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Jeanne to the siege of Orléans to take part in a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory. Partly, this source collection is a biography. From birth do death we see how her short life changes the path of history. Partly this is a view how the images on Jeanne d’Arc changes trough the ages. She became a symbol of hope, religion and mystery.

Acknowledgements: This source collection has been developed by Bjorn Pels with the support of Laura Steenbrink. The source collection makes use of sources provided by KIK-IRPA, the National Library of France, Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Central Library of Zurich, Rijksmuseum, PMR Maeyaert, the British Library, the Hungarian University Of Fine Arts, the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bornholms Museum, Europeana 1914-1918, the Wellcome Library and Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.

Still popular

Jeanne d’Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created works about her. Cultural depictions of her continue to appear in films, theatre, television, video games, music, and performances. The image is made in the 1950s and seems to be a ‘in memoriam’ of Jeanne d’Arc with items she is known for. (By Paul Joostens. KIK-IRPA, Brussels (Belgium), [KIK-IRPA n° 103108] AP_10101898, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

Still popular

Jeanne d’Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created works about her. Cultural depictions of her continue to appear in films, theatre, television, video games, music, and performances. The image is made in the 1950s and seems to be a ‘in memoriam’ of Jeanne d’Arc with items she is known for. (By Paul Joostens. KIK-IRPA, Brussels (Belgium), [KIK-IRPA n° 103108] AP_10101898, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

Birth

In St. Rémy (Reims), there is a house where it is believed Joanne‘d‘Arc lived. She is patron saint of the city. Jeanne was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée in Domrémy, a village which was then in the French part of the Duchy of Bar. Jeanne's parents owned about 50 acres (20 hectares) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and leading the local watch. They lived in an isolated part of Eastern France that remained loyal to the French crown despite being surrounded by pro-Burgundian lands. Several local raids occurred during her childhood and on one occasion her village was burned. This picture of ruins nearby Reims is made in 1947. (Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg: Staatsarchiv Sigmaringen, N 1/89 T 1 Nr. 33, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Birth

In St. Rémy (Reims), there is a house where it is believed Joanne‘d‘Arc lived. She is patron saint of the city. Jeanne was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée in Domrémy, a village which was then in the French part of the Duchy of Bar. Jeanne's parents owned about 50 acres (20 hectares) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and leading the local watch. They lived in an isolated part of Eastern France that remained loyal to the French crown despite being surrounded by pro-Burgundian lands. Several local raids occurred during her childhood and on one occasion her village was burned. This picture of ruins nearby Reims is made in 1947. (Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg: Staatsarchiv Sigmaringen, N 1/89 T 1 Nr. 33, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Religious

This picture from the twentieth century shows Jeanne d’Arc as a Saint. Where did this come from? At her trial, she stated that she was about nineteen years old, which implies she thought she was born around 1412. She later testified that she experienced her first vision in 1425 at the age of 13, when she was in her "father's garden" and saw visions of figures she identified as Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, who told her to drive out the English and bring the Dauphin to Reims for his coronation. She said she cried when they left, as they were so beautiful. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551156q, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Religious

This picture from the twentieth century shows Jeanne d’Arc as a Saint. Where did this come from? At her trial, she stated that she was about nineteen years old, which implies she thought she was born around 1412. She later testified that she experienced her first vision in 1425 at the age of 13, when she was in her "father's garden" and saw visions of figures she identified as Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, who told her to drive out the English and bring the Dauphin to Reims for his coronation. She said she cried when they left, as they were so beautiful. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551156q, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

To arms

At the age of sixteen, she asked a relative named Durand Lassois to take her to the nearby town of Vaucouleurs, where she petitioned the garrison commander, Robert de Baudricourt, for permission to visit the French Royal Court at Chinon. Baudricourt's sarcastic response did not deter her. She returned the following January and gained support from two of Baudricourt's soldiers: Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy. According to Jean de Metz, she told him that "I must be at the King's side ... there will be no help if not from me. Although I would rather have remained spinning at my mother's side ... yet must I go and must I do this thing, for my Lord wills that I do so." Under the auspices of Metz and Poulengy, she was given a second meeting, where she made a prediction about a military reversal at the Battle of Rouvray near Orléans several days before messengers arrived to report it. Given the distance of the battle's location, Baudricourt felt Jeanne could only have known about the French defeat by Divine revelation, and this convinced him to take her seriously. We see Jeanne on the picture holding a sword up in the sky as if she is giving it to God or ask for His blessing. (National library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551159z, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

To arms

At the age of sixteen, she asked a relative named Durand Lassois to take her to the nearby town of Vaucouleurs, where she petitioned the garrison commander, Robert de Baudricourt, for permission to visit the French Royal Court at Chinon. Baudricourt's sarcastic response did not deter her. She returned the following January and gained support from two of Baudricourt's soldiers: Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy. According to Jean de Metz, she told him that "I must be at the King's side ... there will be no help if not from me. Although I would rather have remained spinning at my mother's side ... yet must I go and must I do this thing, for my Lord wills that I do so." Under the auspices of Metz and Poulengy, she was given a second meeting, where she made a prediction about a military reversal at the Battle of Rouvray near Orléans several days before messengers arrived to report it. Given the distance of the battle's location, Baudricourt felt Jeanne could only have known about the French defeat by Divine revelation, and this convinced him to take her seriously. We see Jeanne on the picture holding a sword up in the sky as if she is giving it to God or ask for His blessing. (National library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551159z, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Charles VII

This painting shows Jeanne d’Arc at the cathedral of Reims where she met king Charles VII. After arriving at the Royal Court she impressed Charles VII during a private conference. During this time Charles' mother-in-law Yolande of Aragon was planning to finance a relief expedition to Orléans. Jeanne asked for permission to travel with the army and wear protective armour, which was provided by the Royal government. She depended on donated items for her armour: horse, sword, banner, and other items utilized by her entourage. Historian Stephen W. Richey explains her attraction to the royal court by pointing out that they may have viewed her as the only source of hope for a regime that was near collapse: "After years of one humiliating defeat after another, both the military and civil leadership of France were demoralized and discredited. When the Dauphin Charles granted Jeanne's urgent request to be equipped for war and placed at the head of his army, his decision must have been based largely on the knowledge that every orthodox, every rational option had been tried and had failed. Only a regime in the final straits of desperation would pay any heed to an illiterate farm girl who claimed that the voice of God was instructing her to take charge of her country's army and lead it to victory". (Central Library of Zurich, 0 oai:opac.nebis.ch:EBI01-010099865, Public Domain, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Charles VII

This painting shows Jeanne d’Arc at the cathedral of Reims where she met king Charles VII. After arriving at the Royal Court she impressed Charles VII during a private conference. During this time Charles' mother-in-law Yolande of Aragon was planning to finance a relief expedition to Orléans. Jeanne asked for permission to travel with the army and wear protective armour, which was provided by the Royal government. She depended on donated items for her armour: horse, sword, banner, and other items utilized by her entourage. Historian Stephen W. Richey explains her attraction to the royal court by pointing out that they may have viewed her as the only source of hope for a regime that was near collapse: "After years of one humiliating defeat after another, both the military and civil leadership of France were demoralized and discredited. When the Dauphin Charles granted Jeanne's urgent request to be equipped for war and placed at the head of his army, his decision must have been based largely on the knowledge that every orthodox, every rational option had been tried and had failed. Only a regime in the final straits of desperation would pay any heed to an illiterate farm girl who claimed that the voice of God was instructing her to take charge of her country's army and lead it to victory". (Central Library of Zurich, 0 oai:opac.nebis.ch:EBI01-010099865, Public Domain, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Battle

Jeanne d'Arc on horse by Arnoud Schaepkens. Upon her arrival, Jeanne effectively turned the longstanding Anglo-French conflict into a religious war, a course of action that was not without risk. Charles' advisers were worried that unless Jeanne's orthodoxy could undoubtedly be established—that she was not a heretic or a sorceress—Charles' enemies could easily make the allegation that his crown was a gift from the devil. To circumvent this possibility, the Dauphin ordered background inquiries and a theological examination at Poitiers to verify her morality. In April 1429, the commission of inquiry "declared her to be of irreproachable life, a good Christian, possessed of the virtues of humility, honesty and simplicity." The theologians at Poitiers did not render a decision on the issue of divine inspiration; rather, they informed the Dauphin that there was a "favourable presumption" to be made on the divine nature of her mission. This was enough for Charles, but they also stated that he had an obligation to put Jeanne to the test. "To doubt or abandon her without suspicion of evil would be to repudiate the Holy Spirit and to become unworthy of God's aid", they declared. They recommended that her claims should be put to the test by seeing if she could lift the siege of Orléans as she had predicted. (Rijksmuseum, http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.171250, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Battle

Jeanne d'Arc on horse by Arnoud Schaepkens. Upon her arrival, Jeanne effectively turned the longstanding Anglo-French conflict into a religious war, a course of action that was not without risk. Charles' advisers were worried that unless Jeanne's orthodoxy could undoubtedly be established—that she was not a heretic or a sorceress—Charles' enemies could easily make the allegation that his crown was a gift from the devil. To circumvent this possibility, the Dauphin ordered background inquiries and a theological examination at Poitiers to verify her morality. In April 1429, the commission of inquiry "declared her to be of irreproachable life, a good Christian, possessed of the virtues of humility, honesty and simplicity." The theologians at Poitiers did not render a decision on the issue of divine inspiration; rather, they informed the Dauphin that there was a "favourable presumption" to be made on the divine nature of her mission. This was enough for Charles, but they also stated that he had an obligation to put Jeanne to the test. "To doubt or abandon her without suspicion of evil would be to repudiate the Holy Spirit and to become unworthy of God's aid", they declared. They recommended that her claims should be put to the test by seeing if she could lift the siege of Orléans as she had predicted. (Rijksmuseum, http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.171250, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

The Banner

In artworks, we often see Jeanne with a banner because many people claim she only hold the banner during battles. This is a not to underestimated task, it was important for morale but highly dangerous. She arrived at the besieged city of Orléans on 29 April 1429. Jean d'Orléans, the acting head of the ducal family of Orléans on behalf of his captive half-brother, initially excluded her from war councils and failed to inform her when the army engaged the enemy. However, his decision to exclude her did not prevent her presence at most councils and battles. The extent of her actual military participation and leadership is a subject of debate among historians. On the one hand, Jeanne stated that she carried her banner in battle and had never killed anyone, preferring her banner "forty times" better than a sword; and the army was always directly commanded by a nobleman, such as the Duke of Alençon for example. On the other hand, many of these same noblemen stated that Jeanne had a profound effect on their decisions since they often accepted the advice she gave them, believing her advice was Divinely inspired. In either case, historians agree that the army enjoyed remarkable success during her brief time with it. (PMR Maeyaert, http://more.locloud.eu/content/pol_mayer/france/PM_094216_F_Cubzac_les_Ponts.jpg, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

The Banner

In artworks, we often see Jeanne with a banner because many people claim she only hold the banner during battles. This is a not to underestimated task, it was important for morale but highly dangerous. She arrived at the besieged city of Orléans on 29 April 1429. Jean d'Orléans, the acting head of the ducal family of Orléans on behalf of his captive half-brother, initially excluded her from war councils and failed to inform her when the army engaged the enemy. However, his decision to exclude her did not prevent her presence at most councils and battles. The extent of her actual military participation and leadership is a subject of debate among historians. On the one hand, Jeanne stated that she carried her banner in battle and had never killed anyone, preferring her banner "forty times" better than a sword; and the army was always directly commanded by a nobleman, such as the Duke of Alençon for example. On the other hand, many of these same noblemen stated that Jeanne had a profound effect on their decisions since they often accepted the advice she gave them, believing her advice was Divinely inspired. In either case, historians agree that the army enjoyed remarkable success during her brief time with it. (PMR Maeyaert, http://more.locloud.eu/content/pol_mayer/france/PM_094216_F_Cubzac_les_Ponts.jpg, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Jeanne as a prisoner

Jeanne was imprisoned by the Burgundians at Beaurevoir Castle. She made several escape attempts, on one occasion jumping from her 70-foot (21 m) tower, landing on the soft earth of a dry moat, after which she was moved to the Burgundian town of Arras. The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial. The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournois to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy. The English moved Jeanne to the city of Rouen, which served as their main headquarters in France. Historian Pierre Champion notes that the Armagnacs attempted to rescue her several times by launching military campaigns toward Rouen while she was held there. One campaign occurred during the winter of 1430–1431, another in March 1431, and one in late May shortly before her execution. These attempts were beaten back. Champion also quotes 15th-century sources that say Charles VII threatened to "exact vengeance" upon Burgundian troops whom his forces had captured and upon "the English and women of England" in retaliation for their treatment of Jeanne. We see a painting of Joan of Arc interrogated in her prisoncell by the Cardinal of Winchester, by Hippolyte Delaroche in 1824. (Robert Jefferson Bingham, Rijksmuseum, RM0001.PEOPLE.60781; RM0001.PEOPLE.16303, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Jeanne as a prisoner

Jeanne was imprisoned by the Burgundians at Beaurevoir Castle. She made several escape attempts, on one occasion jumping from her 70-foot (21 m) tower, landing on the soft earth of a dry moat, after which she was moved to the Burgundian town of Arras. The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial. The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournois to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy. The English moved Jeanne to the city of Rouen, which served as their main headquarters in France. Historian Pierre Champion notes that the Armagnacs attempted to rescue her several times by launching military campaigns toward Rouen while she was held there. One campaign occurred during the winter of 1430–1431, another in March 1431, and one in late May shortly before her execution. These attempts were beaten back. Champion also quotes 15th-century sources that say Charles VII threatened to "exact vengeance" upon Burgundian troops whom his forces had captured and upon "the English and women of England" in retaliation for their treatment of Jeanne. We see a painting of Joan of Arc interrogated in her prisoncell by the Cardinal of Winchester, by Hippolyte Delaroche in 1824. (Robert Jefferson Bingham, Rijksmuseum, RM0001.PEOPLE.60781; RM0001.PEOPLE.16303, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Trial

The trial for heresy was politically motivated. The tribunal was composed entirely of pro-English and Burgundian clerics, and overseen by English commanders, including the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick. Legal proceedings commenced on 9 January 1431 at Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government. The procedure was suspicious on a number of points, which would later provoke criticism of the tribunal by the chief inquisitor investigating the trial after the war. This is a picture(taken between 1891-1914) of the keep of the castle of Rouen, the surviving remnant of the fortress where Jeanne was imprisoned during her trial. It has since then become known as the "Jeanne d’Arc Tower". (Central Library of Zurich, oai:opac.nebis.ch:EBI01-005629480, CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Trial

The trial for heresy was politically motivated. The tribunal was composed entirely of pro-English and Burgundian clerics, and overseen by English commanders, including the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick. Legal proceedings commenced on 9 January 1431 at Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government. The procedure was suspicious on a number of points, which would later provoke criticism of the tribunal by the chief inquisitor investigating the trial after the war. This is a picture(taken between 1891-1914) of the keep of the castle of Rouen, the surviving remnant of the fortress where Jeanne was imprisoned during her trial. It has since then become known as the "Jeanne d’Arc Tower". (Central Library of Zurich, oai:opac.nebis.ch:EBI01-005629480, CC0, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Execution

On May 28, Jeanne recanted her previous abjuration, donned men's apparel once more, and was accused of relapsing into heresy. The chief trial notary later said: "she was asked why she had readopted this male clothing, to which she replied that she had done it for the protection of her virginity, for she was not secure while wearing female clothing with her guards, who had tried to rape her, which she had complained about many times to the Bishop and Earl; and [she said] that the judges had promised her that she would be placed in the custody of, and in the prisons of, the Church, and that she would have a woman with her [i.e., a nun, following Inquisitorial procedure]; additionally saying that if it would please the lord judges to place her in a safe location in which she would not be afraid, then she was prepared to readopt female clothing". Jeanne d’Arc was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, when she was around nineteen years old. The image is an illustration for Theatre. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551178, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Execution

On May 28, Jeanne recanted her previous abjuration, donned men's apparel once more, and was accused of relapsing into heresy. The chief trial notary later said: "she was asked why she had readopted this male clothing, to which she replied that she had done it for the protection of her virginity, for she was not secure while wearing female clothing with her guards, who had tried to rape her, which she had complained about many times to the Bishop and Earl; and [she said] that the judges had promised her that she would be placed in the custody of, and in the prisons of, the Church, and that she would have a woman with her [i.e., a nun, following Inquisitorial procedure]; additionally saying that if it would please the lord judges to place her in a safe location in which she would not be afraid, then she was prepared to readopt female clothing". Jeanne d’Arc was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, when she was around nineteen years old. The image is an illustration for Theatre. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551178, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Medieval point of view - Retrial

A posthumous retrial opened after the Hundred Years' War ended. Pope Callixtus III authorized this proceeding, also known as the "nullification trial", at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Bréhal and Jeanne's mother Isabelle Romée. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to canon law. Investigations started with an inquest by Guillaume Bouillé, a theologian and former rector of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Bréhal conducted an investigation in 1452. A formal appeal followed in November 1455. The appellate process involved clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analyzed testimonies from 115 witnesses. Bréhal drew up his final summary in June 1456, which describes Joan as a martyr and implicated the late Pierre Cauchon with heresy for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta. The technical reason for her execution had been a Biblical clothing law. The nullification trial reversed the conviction in part because the condemnation proceeding had failed to consider the doctrinal exceptions to that stricture. The appellate court declared her innocent on 7 July 1456. (National library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551144h, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Medieval point of view - Retrial

A posthumous retrial opened after the Hundred Years' War ended. Pope Callixtus III authorized this proceeding, also known as the "nullification trial", at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Bréhal and Jeanne's mother Isabelle Romée. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to canon law. Investigations started with an inquest by Guillaume Bouillé, a theologian and former rector of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Bréhal conducted an investigation in 1452. A formal appeal followed in November 1455. The appellate process involved clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analyzed testimonies from 115 witnesses. Bréhal drew up his final summary in June 1456, which describes Joan as a martyr and implicated the late Pierre Cauchon with heresy for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta. The technical reason for her execution had been a Biblical clothing law. The nullification trial reversed the conviction in part because the condemnation proceeding had failed to consider the doctrinal exceptions to that stricture. The appellate court declared her innocent on 7 July 1456. (National library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551144h, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Legacy

Jeanne d'Arc has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries. The following list covers various media that include items of historic interest. For instance, Schiller's play inspired at least 82 different dramatic works during the nineteenth century, and Verdi's and Tchaikovsky's operatic adaptations are still recorded and performed. Most of the others survive only in research libraries. As another example, in 1894, Émile Huet listed over 400 plays and musical works about Jeanne d’Arc. Despite a great deal of scholarly interest in her, no complete list of artistic works about her exists, although a 1989 doctoral dissertation did identify all relevant films including ones for which no copy survives. There are, however, numerous portraits and paintings about her. For example, in 1979 the Bibliothèque Municipale in Rouen, France held a gallery containing over 500 images and other items related to Joan of Arc. The story of Jeanne d’Arc was a popular subject for dramatization in the 1940s. In addition to Maxwell Anderson's play Joan of Lorraine and the Ingrid Bergman film Jeanne d’Arc, there was also the 1948 RKO film The Miracle of the Bells starring Fred MacMurray, Alida Valli, and Frank Sinatra, about a dying film actress whose first and last role is Jeanne d’Arc. There were also three radio dramatizations of the story of Jeanne during those years. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6924932q, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Legacy

Jeanne d'Arc has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries. The following list covers various media that include items of historic interest. For instance, Schiller's play inspired at least 82 different dramatic works during the nineteenth century, and Verdi's and Tchaikovsky's operatic adaptations are still recorded and performed. Most of the others survive only in research libraries. As another example, in 1894, Émile Huet listed over 400 plays and musical works about Jeanne d’Arc. Despite a great deal of scholarly interest in her, no complete list of artistic works about her exists, although a 1989 doctoral dissertation did identify all relevant films including ones for which no copy survives. There are, however, numerous portraits and paintings about her. For example, in 1979 the Bibliothèque Municipale in Rouen, France held a gallery containing over 500 images and other items related to Joan of Arc. The story of Jeanne d’Arc was a popular subject for dramatization in the 1940s. In addition to Maxwell Anderson's play Joan of Lorraine and the Ingrid Bergman film Jeanne d’Arc, there was also the 1948 RKO film The Miracle of the Bells starring Fred MacMurray, Alida Valli, and Frank Sinatra, about a dying film actress whose first and last role is Jeanne d’Arc. There were also three radio dramatizations of the story of Jeanne during those years. (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6924932q, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Charles Dickens

Jeanne d'Arc from "The Letters of Charles Dickens. Edited by his sister-in-law and his eldest daughter". This image has been taken from scan 000522 from volume 21 of "The Letters of Charles Dickens. Edited by his sister-in-law and his eldest daughter“ published in 1882. The British Library, 000931072_v21p000522, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/

Charles Dickens

Jeanne d'Arc from "The Letters of Charles Dickens. Edited by his sister-in-law and his eldest daughter". This image has been taken from scan 000522 from volume 21 of "The Letters of Charles Dickens. Edited by his sister-in-law and his eldest daughter“ published in 1882. The British Library, 000931072_v21p000522, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/

Movies and art

Sarah Bernhardt October (1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage and early film actress. She was referred to as "the most famous actress the world has ever known", and is regarded as one of the finest actors of all times. Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon very popular in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a sublime dramatic actress and tragedienne, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah". In her later career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced. She played Jeanne d'Arc in 1898 in the movie La Dame aux Camélias. (By Eugene Grasset. Hungarian University Of Fine Arts, Budapest, PLAKAT-11, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

Movies and art

Sarah Bernhardt October (1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage and early film actress. She was referred to as "the most famous actress the world has ever known", and is regarded as one of the finest actors of all times. Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon very popular in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a sublime dramatic actress and tragedienne, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah". In her later career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced. She played Jeanne d'Arc in 1898 in the movie La Dame aux Camélias. (By Eugene Grasset. Hungarian University Of Fine Arts, Budapest, PLAKAT-11, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

Changes in time

This is the cover of a book in the 19th century by Cypierre. The image of Jeanne changed in time, depending on the values, ‘how should people (not) behave’ changes constantly. Here we see her ‘female like’, without armour and holding a tiny sword almost gently. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Preview/7716809.jpg, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Changes in time

This is the cover of a book in the 19th century by Cypierre. The image of Jeanne changed in time, depending on the values, ‘how should people (not) behave’ changes constantly. Here we see her ‘female like’, without armour and holding a tiny sword almost gently. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Preview/7716809.jpg, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Hope in times of war

Jeanne d’Arc changes to an image of hope when France is at war, for example during the French-Prussian war, World War I and World War II. This picture of the statue of d’Arc shows an important place in times of distress. During World War I, she was frequently used as an icon of heroism in musical works. Some notable songs include "Joan of Arc", "Joan of Arc, They Are Calling You", and "Joan of Arc's Answer Song". (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551171d, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Hope in times of war

Jeanne d’Arc changes to an image of hope when France is at war, for example during the French-Prussian war, World War I and World War II. This picture of the statue of d’Arc shows an important place in times of distress. During World War I, she was frequently used as an icon of heroism in musical works. Some notable songs include "Joan of Arc", "Joan of Arc, They Are Calling You", and "Joan of Arc's Answer Song". (National Library of France, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8551171d, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

French-Prussian War

The image represents Jeanne d’Arc, the peasant girl, listening humbly to the voice of God speaking to her to save his homeland from destruction. During the Franco-Prussian War, Jeanne d’Arc was regarded as a symbol of resistance and hope. It is a miniature model of the statue in Ørstedsparken, Copenhagen. The last one is from 1870 and it is a figure made of copper, while the pedestal is carved in granite. The sculptor is Henri Michel Antoine Chapu. The museum model carries the inscription on the pedestal. (By H. Chapu, Bornholms Museum, 0121x00008 675237, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

French-Prussian War

The image represents Jeanne d’Arc, the peasant girl, listening humbly to the voice of God speaking to her to save his homeland from destruction. During the Franco-Prussian War, Jeanne d’Arc was regarded as a symbol of resistance and hope. It is a miniature model of the statue in Ørstedsparken, Copenhagen. The last one is from 1870 and it is a figure made of copper, while the pedestal is carved in granite. The sculptor is Henri Michel Antoine Chapu. The museum model carries the inscription on the pedestal. (By H. Chapu, Bornholms Museum, 0121x00008 675237, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

The First world war

A sculpture in a bullet, representing Jeanne d’Arc. Made by Dumas-Delage and François-Eugène. Often, Jeanne has been used for political purposes. As Christine de Pizan used her to bolster the spirit of the French, Jeanne is frequently used as a symbol of patriotism. She was very popular during World War I, as evidenced by the song "Joan of Arc, They're Calling You" and the posters from both the United States and Great Britain. In fact, it is likely that Jeanne d’Arc's canonisation in 1920 was precipitated by her popularity during the First World War (accounts indicate that the Catholic Church intended to canonise her in 1931, at the 500 year anniversary of her death). The First Communion medallion from St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church in Hershey, Pennsylvania is a reminder that she is in the first place a religious figure, venerated by countless people throughout the world. Her canonisation made her an important figure to Catholics. This is also clear in her accessibility to different political agendas both in France and in other countries. As the World War I posters indicate, she could be used as patriotic inspiration to women at home. But "The Suffragette" poster represents a very different, and equally political, view on Jeanne as a role model for women. Though this poster does not explicitly state Joan's name, it is clearly meant to evoke her image. With full armor and the word "Justice" emblazoned across her breast, this Jeanne can be interpreted as stimulation for women to break out of stereotypical, passive roles and seek their rights as citizens. Source: http://www.library.rochester.edu/robbins/joanexhibition (Europeana 1914-1918, 125017, 12237, CC BY-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

The First world war

A sculpture in a bullet, representing Jeanne d’Arc. Made by Dumas-Delage and François-Eugène. Often, Jeanne has been used for political purposes. As Christine de Pizan used her to bolster the spirit of the French, Jeanne is frequently used as a symbol of patriotism. She was very popular during World War I, as evidenced by the song "Joan of Arc, They're Calling You" and the posters from both the United States and Great Britain. In fact, it is likely that Jeanne d’Arc's canonisation in 1920 was precipitated by her popularity during the First World War (accounts indicate that the Catholic Church intended to canonise her in 1931, at the 500 year anniversary of her death). The First Communion medallion from St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church in Hershey, Pennsylvania is a reminder that she is in the first place a religious figure, venerated by countless people throughout the world. Her canonisation made her an important figure to Catholics. This is also clear in her accessibility to different political agendas both in France and in other countries. As the World War I posters indicate, she could be used as patriotic inspiration to women at home. But "The Suffragette" poster represents a very different, and equally political, view on Jeanne as a role model for women. Though this poster does not explicitly state Joan's name, it is clearly meant to evoke her image. With full armor and the word "Justice" emblazoned across her breast, this Jeanne can be interpreted as stimulation for women to break out of stereotypical, passive roles and seek their rights as citizens. Source: http://www.library.rochester.edu/robbins/joanexhibition (Europeana 1914-1918, 125017, 12237, CC BY-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

The Second world war

67th General Hospital Jeanne D'Arc, N.Africa, 13th Field San Section, Italy: This is a group shot including Rex the fox hound, a small girl and a woman on the back row. Photograph is possibly made by Mr Eric Griffin. M. Pinto wrote a thesis and compared the ways in which Jeanne d'Arc was portrayed by the French Resistance with the way she was depicted by the collaborationist Vichy government between 1940 and 1944. The fact that she could represent a Republican, anti-clerical, nationalist platform such as Charles de Gaulle's while also representing a staunchly Catholic, authoritarian, collaborationist agenda such as Philippe Petain's asks for an analysis of the ways in which her history was interpreted in very different ways and forced to fit into their respective ideologies. (The Wellcome Library, http://wellcomeimages.org/ixbin/hixclient.exe?MIROPAC=L0028954, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

The Second world war

67th General Hospital Jeanne D'Arc, N.Africa, 13th Field San Section, Italy: This is a group shot including Rex the fox hound, a small girl and a woman on the back row. Photograph is possibly made by Mr Eric Griffin. M. Pinto wrote a thesis and compared the ways in which Jeanne d'Arc was portrayed by the French Resistance with the way she was depicted by the collaborationist Vichy government between 1940 and 1944. The fact that she could represent a Republican, anti-clerical, nationalist platform such as Charles de Gaulle's while also representing a staunchly Catholic, authoritarian, collaborationist agenda such as Philippe Petain's asks for an analysis of the ways in which her history was interpreted in very different ways and forced to fit into their respective ideologies. (The Wellcome Library, http://wellcomeimages.org/ixbin/hixclient.exe?MIROPAC=L0028954, CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Jeanne d’Arc today

Stained glass window in a roman chatolic church in The Netherlands (Heiligen Nicolaas- en Barbarakerk) by Paul van Galen. Joanne d’Arc is on the right. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis, St. Michael, St. Remi, St. Petronilla, St. Radegund and St. Thérèse of Lisieux. (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, 269874, CC BY-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

Jeanne d’Arc today

Stained glass window in a roman chatolic church in The Netherlands (Heiligen Nicolaas- en Barbarakerk) by Paul van Galen. Joanne d’Arc is on the right. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis, St. Michael, St. Remi, St. Petronilla, St. Radegund and St. Thérèse of Lisieux. (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, 269874, CC BY-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)