History of portraits

An image of time

Portrait painting became booming in the 15th century thanks to the camera obscura. Now a person could make realistic portraits after the development of this revolutionary development. Paintings were almost always 20X30. This has to do with the camera obscura. The background is gone, the portrayed people have small pupils (by sunlight) and there is a lot of black and white. The paintings were often a kind of retouched as they are realistic but adapted. Not too many wrinkles for example. Portraits say something about the period. This also applies to the photos later.

Acknowledgements: This source collection has been developed by Bjorn Pels with the support of Laura Steenbrink. Sources are from Alte Pinakothek Munich, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, The British Library, Museum Digital, Wellcome Library, KIK-IRPA Brussels, Musée du Louvre, Nivaagaards Malerisamling, Teylers Museum,Rijksmuseum, Hallwylska museet, KU Leuven, National Library of France, University of Edinburgh, Ajuntament de Girona, The European Library, Fondo Fotográfico de la Universidad de Navarra, Museum Ludwig, Városi Képtár - Deák Gyűjtemény - Székesfehérvár, Wolverhampton Archives, Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Graz and Norsk Folkemuseum

The personalisation of portraits

This is a self-portrait by Dürer (1471-1528), painted in 1500. If we look at the initials and the date we see who Dürer is and what he does. From 1500 onwards, more artists are signing their work. Painting was seen as just a “handicraft” until painters started to write their signatures. It made paintings personal. (Alte Pinakothek Munich Inv. Nr. 537, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

The personalisation of portraits

This is a self-portrait by Dürer (1471-1528), painted in 1500. If we look at the initials and the date we see who Dürer is and what he does. From 1500 onwards, more artists are signing their work. Painting was seen as just a “handicraft” until painters started to write their signatures. It made paintings personal. (Alte Pinakothek Munich Inv. Nr. 537, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Portrait as a form of immortality

Interpreting, ‘reading’ a painting can be very difficult. It is a separate genre. But nowadays, interpretation is always done from our point of view: from the present. The initial goal of the painting might be forgotten, namely that capturing a person on a painting was a way to immortalise that person. In times when people died quickly, many let themselves portrayed for this reason. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0, Public Domain)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Portrait as a form of immortality

Interpreting, ‘reading’ a painting can be very difficult. It is a separate genre. But nowadays, interpretation is always done from our point of view: from the present. The initial goal of the painting might be forgotten, namely that capturing a person on a painting was a way to immortalise that person. In times when people died quickly, many let themselves portrayed for this reason. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0, Public Domain)

Recognising the individual

From the 14th century onwards, individuals started to become recognisable on paintings. Before, information was encrypted and people were painted in n anonymous way, because the message was more important than the people on the painting. (The British Library K056154, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Recognising the individual

From the 14th century onwards, individuals started to become recognisable on paintings. Before, information was encrypted and people were painted in n anonymous way, because the message was more important than the people on the painting. (The British Library K056154, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0)

Silhouette portrait

This is a pretty simple and straightforward portrait. It is quite undetailed, but the man is recognisable. The background was gold, similar to religious images in the Middle Ages. Some people find it brilliant in its simplicity, while others find it too simplistic. (Museum Digital PA3_21-20, CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Silhouette portrait

This is a pretty simple and straightforward portrait. It is quite undetailed, but the man is recognisable. The background was gold, similar to religious images in the Middle Ages. Some people find it brilliant in its simplicity, while others find it too simplistic. (Museum Digital PA3_21-20, CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/)

King Henry IV

The evolution of the royal portrait can serve as a symbol for the evolutions of (portrait) painting as a whole. However, this can be difficult and many exhibitions are and were dedicated to it. Yet there is an evolution. In 1590 the French king Henry IV allowed himself to be portrayed. The king is wearing expensive colour and armour, with a city on the background. Overall, the portrait does not contain a lot of depth yet, the proportions are strange and the kind looks quite two-dimensional. (Wellcome Library London S0002578, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

King Henry IV

The evolution of the royal portrait can serve as a symbol for the evolutions of (portrait) painting as a whole. However, this can be difficult and many exhibitions are and were dedicated to it. Yet there is an evolution. In 1590 the French king Henry IV allowed himself to be portrayed. The king is wearing expensive colour and armour, with a city on the background. Overall, the portrait does not contain a lot of depth yet, the proportions are strange and the kind looks quite two-dimensional. (Wellcome Library London S0002578, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

King Louis XIII

In 1620, Louis XIII had himself portrayed in this painting. He is portrayed surrounded by medals and cities with a familiar environment. There are also signs of allegorically elements in the painting. In comparison to previous portraits of kings, King Louis is portrayed more realistic and detailed. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b84039856, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

King Louis XIII

In 1620, Louis XIII had himself portrayed in this painting. He is portrayed surrounded by medals and cities with a familiar environment. There are also signs of allegorically elements in the painting. In comparison to previous portraits of kings, King Louis is portrayed more realistic and detailed. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b84039856, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

King Louis XIV

This is a portrait of King Louis XIV, made by Mignard, a well-known portrait painter at the time. He painted the king in 1674. In this painting the king is portrayed with a city in the background, an angel and wreath. The horse was supposed to be a running horse. The images are stereotypical. This painting from 1701 is a painting full of symbols: the cloak, sword, velvet cloth emphasise the symbolic nature of the painting. (Complutense University Library of Madrid, AfLF1392, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/80x15.png

King Louis XIV

This is a portrait of King Louis XIV, made by Mignard, a well-known portrait painter at the time. He painted the king in 1674. In this painting the king is portrayed with a city in the background, an angel and wreath. The horse was supposed to be a running horse. The images are stereotypical. This painting from 1701 is a painting full of symbols: the cloak, sword, velvet cloth emphasise the symbolic nature of the painting. (Complutense University Library of Madrid, AfLF1392, CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

Portrait of a family

This is a painting from 1559 with the portrait of a family by Sofonisba Anguissola: his father and a brother and sister pose for the painter. The children look to the father and the girl has flowers in her hands. The family is accompanied by a dog. These elements give the portrait a domestic and not too static atmosphere: recognisable elements relating to a family. The background shows a city and mountains, which was done so that people quickly recognised which city it was. (Nivaagaards Malerisamling, CC0 creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Portrait of a family

This is a painting from 1559 with the portrait of a family by Sofonisba Anguissola: his father and a brother and sister pose for the painter. The children look to the father and the girl has flowers in her hands. The family is accompanied by a dog. These elements give the portrait a domestic and not too static atmosphere: recognisable elements relating to a family. The background shows a city and mountains, which was done so that people quickly recognised which city it was. (Nivaagaards Malerisamling, CC0 creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0)

Portrait of a couple

In 1622, Frans Hals painted a couple in a little peculiar way. The couple is depicted two times. They seem to appear as a wealthy couple in the front. There was freedom in thinking and relative religious freedom, which gives painters some freedom too. Bourgeois culture with a kind of coded realism. All things want to say something. In the painting we see in the background people arm in arm walking meaning that the couple was engaged. Once married was not needed anymore. (Teylers Museum TvB G 0304 , CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Portrait of a couple

In 1622, Frans Hals painted a couple in a little peculiar way. The couple is depicted two times. They seem to appear as a wealthy couple in the front. There was freedom in thinking and relative religious freedom, which gives painters some freedom too. Bourgeois culture with a kind of coded realism. All things want to say something. In the painting we see in the background people arm in arm walking meaning that the couple was engaged. Once married was not needed anymore. (Teylers Museum TvB G 0304 , CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

Family portrait with 4 children

Cornelis de Vos was a painter of family portraits. This painting shows a father, a mother and four children. In a family portrait like this, attributes and attitude were important. The woman and one of the sons seem to be having odd proportions. In 1631, De Vos made a painting were one of the children seem to float. Cornelis de Vos used lenses. Boys were dressed as girls until they were eight years. Some portraits made by De Vos pictured disabilities, something rare. Some portraits have other portraits with ancestors. in the background. (KIK-IRPA Brussels AP_10015483, CC BY-NC-SA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Family portrait with 4 children

Cornelis de Vos was a painter of family portraits. This painting shows a father, a mother and four children. In a family portrait like this, attributes and attitude were important. The woman and one of the sons seem to be having odd proportions. In 1631, De Vos made a painting were one of the children seem to float. Cornelis de Vos used lenses. Boys were dressed as girls until they were eight years. Some portraits made by De Vos pictured disabilities, something rare. Some portraits have other portraits with ancestors. in the background. (KIK-IRPA Brussels AP_10015483, CC BY-NC-SA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

Smiling on paintings

Until the early 1930s, it is not common to see people smiling on paintings. This painting by Frans Hals was painted in 1580, however, so is an exception to this rule. Normally, portraits were serious, so it is possible that this painting is a protest to something. (Teylers Museum TvB G 1883, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Smiling on paintings

Until the early 1930s, it is not common to see people smiling on paintings. This painting by Frans Hals was painted in 1580, however, so is an exception to this rule. Normally, portraits were serious, so it is possible that this painting is a protest to something. (Teylers Museum TvB G 1883, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

Portrait of a 19th century girl

This is a portrait of a girl from the 19th century by Louis Gallet. Similar portraits were created in the 17th century. It is a very calm portrait where the girl seems to be in control of the bird and the dog. She is probably part of an important family because of the fact that she is portrayed alone and because of the static nature of the painting. (KIK-IRPA Brussels AP_10346058, CC BY-NC-SA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc-sa/3.0/80x15.png

Portrait of a 19th century girl

This is a portrait of a girl from the 19th century by Louis Gallet. Similar portraits were created in the 17th century. It is a very calm portrait where the girl seems to be in control of the bird and the dog. She is probably part of an important family because of the fact that she is portrayed alone and because of the static nature of the painting. (KIK-IRPA Brussels AP_10346058, CC BY-NC-SA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)

Portrait as a memory

This is a painting from the 18th century with a child portrayed while blowing bubbles. In that time, it could be a symbol that the child had died. This makes the painting probably a memorial. His clothes, the surroundings and background indicate that he was part of a wealthy family. (Rijksmuseum RP-T-1918-363, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

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Portrait as a memory

This is a painting from the 18th century with a child portrayed while blowing bubbles. In that time, it could be a symbol that the child had died. This makes the painting probably a memorial. His clothes, the surroundings and background indicate that he was part of a wealthy family. (Rijksmuseum RP-T-1918-363, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Donor portrait

Jan van Eyck was a famous painter of donor portraits. A donor portrait is a part of a larger painting, often a religious painting, that people paid for to be included in. It was a way for people to buy off their sins. Very rich people could even buy (or donate) a whole chapel. This is an example made by Jan van Eyck. (Hallwylska museet, Inv. nr. LXVI:Q.33 9329, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Donor portrait

Jan van Eyck was a famous painter of donor portraits. A donor portrait is a part of a larger painting, often a religious painting, that people paid for to be included in. It was a way for people to buy off their sins. Very rich people could even buy (or donate) a whole chapel. This is an example made by Jan van Eyck. (Hallwylska museet, Inv. nr. LXVI:Q.33 9329, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Portrait of a hero

This is a portrait by Philippe de Champaigne. He painted the chairman of the parliament in Paris who later rebelled against the king. When a rebellion was a success, the leader could expect a heroportrait. Richelieu has one too (image), although he looks very tall and the proportions do not seem to be correct. Richelieu was a busy man, and he only posed for his head (Camera Obscura). (University of Leuven 9990625740101488, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Portrait of a hero

This is a portrait by Philippe de Champaigne. He painted the chairman of the parliament in Paris who later rebelled against the king. When a rebellion was a success, the leader could expect a heroportrait. Richelieu has one too (image), although he looks very tall and the proportions do not seem to be correct. Richelieu was a busy man, and he only posed for his head (Camera Obscura). (University of Leuven 9990625740101488, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Ordinary people in the 17th century

This is a very famous painting: the ‘Milkmaid’ by Johannes Vermeer. It is painting that raises a couple of questions. It was not a common portrait, because most of them were ordered by wealthy people and the woman on the painting is, indicated by her clothes, not vey wealthy. Did Vermeer just wanted to depict a milkmaid? Was it meant as an allegory? (Rijksmuseum SK-A-2344, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Ordinary people in the 17th century

This is a very famous painting: the ‘Milkmaid’ by Johannes Vermeer. It is painting that raises a couple of questions. It was not a common portrait, because most of them were ordered by wealthy people and the woman on the painting is, indicated by her clothes, not vey wealthy. Did Vermeer just wanted to depict a milkmaid? Was it meant as an allegory? (Rijksmuseum SK-A-2344, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Ordinary people in the 18th century

The period of the ancient regime has produced hardly any portraits of ordinary people. However, Drouais in1757 made a painting without a title and difficult to understand. Two very similar looking boys are depicted with captain-like clothes. In Savoy children went out in the spring to autumn to provide an extra income for parents. It is possible that those two boys Drouais seem to do so as well. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b84319610, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Ordinary people in the 18th century

The period of the ancient regime has produced hardly any portraits of ordinary people. However, Drouais in1757 made a painting without a title and difficult to understand. Two very similar looking boys are depicted with captain-like clothes. In Savoy children went out in the spring to autumn to provide an extra income for parents. It is possible that those two boys Drouais seem to do so as well. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b84319610, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Portraits around the French Revolution

This portrait from 1793 is from a noblewoman. She seems depicted almost as a common woman, without allegories. Around the French Revolution, the style of portraits changes. The privilege of painters is broken by the abolition of guilds and crafts. Everyone could make portraits. In addition, the position of the nobility changed. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b85308175, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Portraits around the French Revolution

This portrait from 1793 is from a noblewoman. She seems depicted almost as a common woman, without allegories. Around the French Revolution, the style of portraits changes. The privilege of painters is broken by the abolition of guilds and crafts. Everyone could make portraits. In addition, the position of the nobility changed. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b85308175, Public Domain Marked, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

No revolution in England

England has not a revolution. Painting are still rich with details and allegories. What disappeared in France. This painting from 1801, is according to the old traditions and background. The painter is looking for the truth, in the sense he wanted as much as detail as possible (Source: Van Goethem). (Wellcome Library ICV No 6721, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

No revolution in England

England has not a revolution. Painting are still rich with details and allegories. What disappeared in France. This painting from 1801, is according to the old traditions and background. The painter is looking for the truth, in the sense he wanted as much as detail as possible (Source: Van Goethem). (Wellcome Library ICV No 6721, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Mass production of royal portraits

In the 19th century, a mass production of royal portraits in A4 size emerges. Images are used in various ways and copied many times. In Germany, many of these portraits ended up in ordinary houses. They might be designed to strengthen the nationalistic feelings, encouraged by paintings of the sovereigns. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library #5157700 - PORT_00058353_01, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Mass production of royal portraits

In the 19th century, a mass production of royal portraits in A4 size emerges. Images are used in various ways and copied many times. In Germany, many of these portraits ended up in ordinary houses. They might be designed to strengthen the nationalistic feelings, encouraged by paintings of the sovereigns. (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek - Austrian National Library #5157700 - PORT_00058353_01, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Simplicity

This is a portrait from 1851 of a person with a black background. Other than the rich surroudings and backgrounds from the portraits of the 18th century, the style changed to a more sober and simple style. There is more room for uniformity this way and thus more difficult to emphasise the changes between wealthy and poor people. (Teylers Museum TvB G 5329, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Simplicity

This is a portrait from 1851 of a person with a black background. Other than the rich surroudings and backgrounds from the portraits of the 18th century, the style changed to a more sober and simple style. There is more room for uniformity this way and thus more difficult to emphasise the changes between wealthy and poor people. (Teylers Museum TvB G 5329, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/nl/)

Romanticism

This is a (perhaps the most famous) painting of the July revolution of 1830 and it is a perfect example of romanticism. Slowly France leaves the somewhat boring paintings. We see this also in the portraits. In the period of romanticism, painters started to look for new styles, and new genres emerge. Furthermore, West-European countries are democratising from the French Revolution onwards. In addition, the middle class started to appear on portraits. (Musée du Louvre RF129, CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc-sa/3.0/80x15.png

Romanticism

This is a (perhaps the most famous) painting of the July revolution of 1830 and it is a perfect example of romanticism. Slowly France leaves the somewhat boring paintings. We see this also in the portraits. In the period of romanticism, painters started to look for new styles, and new genres emerge. Furthermore, West-European countries are democratising from the French Revolution onwards. In addition, the middle class started to appear on portraits. (Musée du Louvre RF129, CC BY-NC-SA, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

Portrait picture Hill and Adamson

This is a photographic portrait made by Hill and Adamson. These two gentlemen made many unusual pictures without worrying too much about existing social conventions. Coincidence and spontaneity were important in their painting style. After 1850, tendency disappears increasingly. Portrait pictures from that moment on become more traditional and posing becomes more important. (University of Edinburgh Coll-1073, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/3.0/80x15.png

Portrait picture Hill and Adamson

This is a photographic portrait made by Hill and Adamson. These two gentlemen made many unusual pictures without worrying too much about existing social conventions. Coincidence and spontaneity were important in their painting style. After 1850, tendency disappears increasingly. Portrait pictures from that moment on become more traditional and posing becomes more important. (University of Edinburgh Coll-1073, CC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

The challenge of the background

The biggest challenge for many portrait photographers was the issue of the background. A good example that illustrates this challenge is this picture, taken in 1874. Because studios were not used yet, photographers had to come up with other creative solutions on what to display on the background. A possible solution is to stretch out a white sheet in the background that can be cut off later when the picture is taken. (Ajuntament de Girona 101144, Public Domain Marked creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

The challenge of the background

The biggest challenge for many portrait photographers was the issue of the background. A good example that illustrates this challenge is this picture, taken in 1874. Because studios were not used yet, photographers had to come up with other creative solutions on what to display on the background. A possible solution is to stretch out a white sheet in the background that can be cut off later when the picture is taken. (Ajuntament de Girona 101144, Public Domain Marked creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0)

Nadar

Nadar, the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, was one of the first important portrait photographers. He put a large emphasis on posing and the photos are larger and signed. He had a good sense of innovation, creativity and how to sell it to the public. For example, he could take a picture of a balloon and then knew how to sell it, because he presented it as something new. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b8423480z, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Nadar

Nadar, the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, was one of the first important portrait photographers. He put a large emphasis on posing and the photos are larger and signed. He had a good sense of innovation, creativity and how to sell it to the public. For example, he could take a picture of a balloon and then knew how to sell it, because he presented it as something new. (National Library of France 12148/btv1b8423480z, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Small-sized portrait photographs

During the 19th century, the picture begins to gain an increasing popularity. André Disdéri took pictures the size of a business card, and started to use a studio. It was cheaper and answered to the demand of the public. This small-sized photography started to pave the way for the emergence of the photo album as well. This picture, of Isabella, princess of Asturias, is a good example of this small-sized photography. (Fondo Fotográfico de la Universidad de Navarra UNAV20090014114, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Small-sized portrait photographs

During the 19th century, the picture begins to gain an increasing popularity. André Disdéri took pictures the size of a business card, and started to use a studio. It was cheaper and answered to the demand of the public. This small-sized photography started to pave the way for the emergence of the photo album as well. This picture, of Isabella, princess of Asturias, is a good example of this small-sized photography. (Fondo Fotográfico de la Universidad de Navarra UNAV20090014114, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

Painting-like pictures

The first photographic portraits resembled the old style of portraits paintings. Framed pictures can almost look like a painting. Photographers also wanted to continue the tradition of allegory. After roughly 1850, the allegorical genre started to disappeared, together with the Italian renaissance-style portrait pictures. (National Library of France, 12148/btv1b53107782r, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Painting-like pictures

The first photographic portraits resembled the old style of portraits paintings. Framed pictures can almost look like a painting. Photographers also wanted to continue the tradition of allegory. After roughly 1850, the allegorical genre started to disappeared, together with the Italian renaissance-style portrait pictures. (National Library of France, 12148/btv1b53107782r, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

First Communion

This is a portrait picture of a little girl in a white dress, wearing a veil. She has her First Holy Communion carries a picture that she probably received for the occasion, around 1910. Unlike this picture, on pictures of the First Communion children are often portrayed with lambs, a symbol for Jesus. (Városi Képtár - Deák Gyűjtemény - Székesfehérvár 2011_05_07_IMG_0034, CC BY-NC-ND http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/80x15.png

First Communion

This is a portrait picture of a little girl in a white dress, wearing a veil. She has her First Holy Communion carries a picture that she probably received for the occasion, around 1910. Unlike this picture, on pictures of the First Communion children are often portrayed with lambs, a symbol for Jesus. (Városi Képtár - Deák Gyűjtemény - Székesfehérvár 2011_05_07_IMG_0034, CC BY-NC-ND http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Professional portrait

With the emergence of photography, professional portraits did not disappear. Common examples are pictures of the army, or pictures of workplaces with the employees in front of it, in hierarchical order. The position in the picture and the attitude of the person indicated the position of importance in the company. (Wolverhampton Archives GB149_P_2972, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/80x15.png

Professional portrait

With the emergence of photography, professional portraits did not disappear. Common examples are pictures of the army, or pictures of workplaces with the employees in front of it, in hierarchical order. The position in the picture and the attitude of the person indicated the position of importance in the company. (Wolverhampton Archives GB149_P_2972, CC BY-NC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

Portraits in anthropometry

Portrait painting of criminals was a new tendency used in criminology and were portraits of convicted men photographed from the side. Racial and hereditary visions developed under the influence of Darwinism. In addition to the science of animals, these theories were applied to the human race. All of the physical elements are measured in order to detect hereditary traits. They went looking for “inferior” human types and varieties. Obviously, the study is very inaccurate and controversial. An important scientist researching this was Cesare Lombroso. Many of his ideas were used by national socialists as inspiration. (Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Graz, Kutija 5: 2666; 2667; 2668, CC BY-NC-ND http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/at/)

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Portraits in anthropometry

Portrait painting of criminals was a new tendency used in criminology and were portraits of convicted men photographed from the side. Racial and hereditary visions developed under the influence of Darwinism. In addition to the science of animals, these theories were applied to the human race. All of the physical elements are measured in order to detect hereditary traits. They went looking for “inferior” human types and varieties. Obviously, the study is very inaccurate and controversial. An important scientist researching this was Cesare Lombroso. Many of his ideas were used by national socialists as inspiration. (Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Graz, Kutija 5: 2666; 2667; 2668, CC BY-NC-ND http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/at/)

Post Mortem

A photographic tendency to portray the deceased emerged after the 1850s. Previously, deceased were not shown on pictures, only with death masks on. It quickly became popular, but faded away again after the 1880s. Of this type of portrait, there are very little pictures of children. (Norsk Folkemuseum NF/NFB.33432, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)

x:https://licensebuttons.net/l/publicdomain/80x15.png

Post Mortem

A photographic tendency to portray the deceased emerged after the 1850s. Previously, deceased were not shown on pictures, only with death masks on. It quickly became popular, but faded away again after the 1880s. Of this type of portrait, there are very little pictures of children. (Norsk Folkemuseum NF/NFB.33432, Public Domain Marked http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/)